Stainless steel 1.4541, AISI 321

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What is worth knowing about AISI 321 steel?

This material is an austenitic stainless steel with the addition of titanium in its composition, which makes it harder and has better properties. Chrome-nickel stainless steel is elastic but non-magnetic. On the other hand, it is very resistant to intergranular corrosion and operation at elevated temperatures. It works very well in moderately aggressive environments, when working with acids: nitric acid, nitric acid salt, sulphuric acid, acetic acid and phosphoric acid. It also behaves well when working with formic acid or other organic acids.

Mechanical properties of AISI 321H stainless steel is mainly due to its high elasticity. Its yield strength is more than 190 N/mm2 and its tensile strength is 500-700 N/mm2. The elongation is greater than 40 % and the modulus of elasticity is as much as 200 GPa. Steel retains hardness less than 215 HB. Chrome-nickel stainless steel is resistant to many organic acids and has very good impact strength.

You can find the detailed specs here: 1.4541, AISI 321

How and where to use X6CrNiTi18-10 steel?

Stainless steel grade X6CrNiTi18-10 is used in the chemical, food, cryogenic, nitrogenous, aviation, fuel, paper industry. It is from it that pressure vessels, liquid installations, pipelines, fittings, subassemblies of various devices and machines necessary for food production as well as silos and tanks for chemicals are created. AISI 321H stainless steel is used to manufacture radiators, heat exchanges, corrosion-resistant springs and high temperature parts.

Processes to which steel 1.4541 is subjected

Stainless steel with symbol 1.4541 is subjected to many technological processes before it is ready for sale. First of all, it is recommended to anneal +AT at temperatures from 1020 to 1120℃along with cooling in water or air.

1.4878 is a replacement for stainless steel

The increased carbon content in the composition and the presence of titanium and silicon are the main characteristics of a stainless steel substitute with symbol 1.4878. It is distinguished by the fact that it is heat-resistant and can operate at high temperatures (even up to 850℃). The material is resistant to water vapour and chlorine, carbon monoxide and ammonia. This type of steel is most commonly used in the aerospace industry for the production of many components necessary for aircraft construction and in tanks operating at high temperatures. However, it is not resistant to hydrogen chloride, chloride, sulphur oxide or bromine vapours.

CNG closed for Four Months in Punjab

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As winter approached, gas shortage is on its peak. Either its domestic consumers, Industry, CNG sector or any other kind of consumers, everyone is feeling the shortage once again in year 2014 despite the government’s vows of importing the LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) in December 2014 which now have been delayed till after March 2014 according to PML-N (Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz) administration.

With LNG import delayed, government have resorted to closing supply of CNG to Punjab as a measure to deal with gas shortage. So according to decision, announced through SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited), Punjab will be deprived to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for four months, starting from 15 Nov, 2014 to 15 March 2015. CNG is used by masses in Punjab and rest of Pakistan as alternative fuel in their vehicles and practically this fuel is 2.5 to 3 times cheaper than the available Gasoline fuel which is referred mostly as petrol here in Pakistan.

Long CNG Vehicles Queue before CNG Closed for Four months as Part of CNG Load Shedding or CNG Load Management Plan
Long CNG Vehicles Queues before CNG Closed for Four months as Part of CNG Load Shedding or CNG Load Management Plan

Since, government have not taken any measures to import the gas on time, closing CNG is only logical decision at time to ease things up for domestic consumers. However, to ease things for transporters, government have option to do lots, but PML-N led government does not seem in mood. As we all know, on petrol in addition to 17% GST (General Sales Tax), government is also taking about Rs. 20 in terms of other taxes like petroleum development levy and other such taxes.

If they don’t want to cut out the GST, its perfectly good, but they must cut the levy or any other taxes to ease things for transporters and other consumers of Gasoline or petrol. Same must be done with Diesel, kerosene oil and other petroleum products. But seems like our current Nawaz led Government is in no mood to give relief to people of Pakistan.

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CNG Stations to remain open on five days of Eid al-Adha 2014 all over Pakistan

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CNG Filling StationGovernment of Pakistan have announced that there will be no CNG load shedding on Eid al-Adha 2014, so people can move to their hometowns and back easily using the cheap alternate fuel. The Gasoline or Petrol is normally unaffordable in Pakistan due to above 40% taxes on it. Specially on such occasions when l0ng journeys back to hometowns have to be made by masses, their first preference will be low cost fuel like CNG, which by the way is only low cost fuel available to masses in Pakistan.

CNG stations already opened on Friday the 3rd of October 2o14 and will remain open till the end of Eid Holidays which is Thursday, 9th of October, 2014. Punjab is the province in which CNG load shedding is most severe, only two days a week CNG is available to Pakistani people. But now after this announcement People of Punjab including the Potohar Region will also enjoy almost one week of CNG availability.

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Schedule for CNG Load Shedding in Islamabad/Rawalpindi and Rest of Potohar region after Eid Al-Fitr 2014

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long queue at a CNG Station in PakistanThis past month Eid days were nothing less than the cool breeze during hot summer for Transporters and Motorists of Punjab as CNG was open on all 5 days of eid, so lots of people had got chance to fill there vehicles with cheap CNG fuel after as long as four months. Before Eid Al-Fitr 2014, during ramadan CNG filling stations were only opening two days in a week, even on those two days it was opening for only 9 hours in a week.. Plus those two days were not consecutive. There was same situation before that specially in province of Punjab, Pakistan. Some transporters still managed to get in lines for long hours and get CNG but for most of private car owners, specially working class, it was just not possible.

Now the Eid days are over, so the fun, again as per government implemented schedule CNG will open on only 2 days of week. Even these 2 days are not consecutive, so people will have to be in long queues. Following is the Schedule of CNG opening days per week in Potohar region of Punjab Pakistan.

  • Opening Days: 2
  • Day 1 ( Monday 6 am to Tuesday 6 am ) – 24 Hours.
  • Day 2 (Thursday 6 am to Friday 6 am ) – 24 Hours.
  • Total 48 hours in a week

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2014 Ramadan CNG Load Shedding Schedule for Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Rest of Potohar Region

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ramadan cng schedule 2014 potohar regionCNG load shedding problem for Potohar region worsened in Holy month of Ramadan when government intervene to open CNG only two days, that also only for 9 hours each day. Also these two days are not consecutive. Schedule for Potohar region is as follows,

Opening Days and  Hours

  • Monday (6am to 3pm)
  • Thursday (6am to 3pm)

CNG will remain close on all other days and hours other than mentioned above. This schedule have worsened things for common man, this cheap fuel is now out of reach of working class because they can not get their fuel tanks filled by leaving offices and getting in queues for hours. Also for transporters things are not too good. For Monday’s CNG opening hours transporters start leaving their vehicles on CNG stations from Sunday morning, hence till Monday morning the CNG queues are too long, mostly they are easily minimum two to three kilometers at start of day.

Real test of transporters start when CNG stations start working, as the sun comes up, things start getting hotter and unbearable for those who are in queues, specially when they are fasting. If government only had to open CNG for Nine hours than best option for them was to open it in night instead of day, at least people don’t have to melt down in summer heat while fasting and waiting for their turns in queue. The turn which takes no less than 3 to 4 hours for most.

Following is a Dunya News video which explains the situation of CNG consumers after current schedule came in place.

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